8 edition of Theory of collective behavior. found in the catalog.
Theory of collective behavior.
Neil J. Smelser
Bibliography: p. 388-427.
|Other titles||Collective behavior.|
|LC Classifications||HM251 .S628|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xi, 436 p.|
|Number of Pages||436|
|LC Control Number||62015350|
Spontaneous gatherings like this are called flash mobs. A small police provocation elicits a major outcry of police brutality; a trivial success is the occasion for large-scale celebration. Collective behavior is of course a double-edged sword. Their expanded definition of the crowd is justified if propositions which hold true among compact crowds do so for diffuse crowds as well. Examples include a religious revival, a political rally for a candidate, and events like Mardi Gras.
Thus while crowd revelry on Halloween, New Years Eve, Mardi Gras, or after an important athletic victory can be anticipated, the exact boundaries and course of the crowd behavior is not very clearly defined. As these two examples illustrate, moral panics often center on social groups that are already very unpopular, including the poor, people of color, and religious minorities. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of on August 6. The many individuals and organizations who were involved in the initial mass protest event went on to create a more organized movement which was effective in obtaining many of its goals. Examples include a religious revival, a political rally for a candidate, and events like Mardi Gras. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Any occasion to abandon routines is welcomed. Most formal organizations involve the periodic assembling of relatively large numbers of persons. Elementary forms of collective behaviour Regardless of where or how collective behaviour develops, it requires some kind of preparation. What is crucial instead are efforts by social movement leaders to mobilize the resources—most notably, time, money, and energy—of the population and to direct them into effective political action. Along the side in cross tabulation are shown examples of conventional and collective behavior that can occur within each setting. An example of experiencing collective behavior in life is one particular moment during college.
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However, critics say it underestimates the importance of harsh social conditions and discontent for the rise of social movement activity. What if most of those attending suddenly stopped coming?
Historically, riots have occurred due to poor working or living conditions, government oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between races or religions, the outcome of a sporting event, or frustration with legal channels through which to air grievances.
Whatever the condition, the dissatisfaction it generates leads to shared discontent also called shared grievances among some or most of the population that then may give rise to a social movement.
Its major types include crowds, riots, rumors, and fads. The cool detachment that characterizes much social role playing may not apply. What attitudes and emotions are expected?
This is clearly demonstrated by the control efforts, whether stark repression or more subtle manipulation found in contemporary totalitarian countries and novels such as Brave New World and As such, these behaviors often have very little in common with each other, even if their basic features allow them to be classified as collective behavior.
Crowds, in addition, can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people. Thus when a controversy ends with police, or in extreme cases the national guard being called in, the role of organized force or coercion and their threat in maintaining the established social order is apparent.
Included in collective behaviour are the activities of people in crowds, panics, fads, fashions, crazes, publics, cults, and followings as well as more organized phenomena, such as reform and revolutionary social movements. Movements also may decline because of government repression.
Instead, norms develop and are accepted as they fit the situation. A major point of the historical work of Charles Tilly on protest in Western Europe is that as organization changes so does the nature of collective behavior.
Other evidence suggests that people pass on rumours whether they believe them or not and that the likelihood of belief increases with their repeated hearing. Amenta, E. At this stage a movement and its leaders must decide how they will recruit new members and they must determine the strategies they will use to achieve their goals.
These sociologists found that the rioters were fairly typical of the average resident—in terms of employment, economic status, and other factors—of the areas in which the riots occurred.
The term also occurs in the phrase mass hysteria to describe mass public near-panic reactions. Christianity, for example, grew out of a humble social movement led by an outsider. Emergent-Norm Perspective According to the emergent-norm perspective, Hurricane Katrina victims sought needed supplies for survival, but to outsiders their behavior would normally be seen as looting.
Social movements are also often the setting for short term collective behavior of a protest nature. Although it seems obvious that social movements have made a considerable difference, social movement scholars until recently have paid much more attention to the origins of social movements than to their consequences Giugni, Collective behavior scholars now believe that collective behavior is much more rational than contagion theory assumed.
Collective behavior can mean challenge to unjust authority, liberation and renewal. These findings indicated that the riots could not easily be dismissed as the actions of the dregs of society but instead should be regarded, despite their violence, as protests against urban poverty that deserved to be heeded.
Obviously, this is not the usual use of the word, "public. The fact that individuals playing roles within formal organizations are personally identifiable and lack the anonymity offered by a large crowd has been thought to inhibit collective behavior.
This also helps explain the key role of salient details and path-dependence in rapid shifts. Social Problems, 15, —; Rule, J. The absence of formal rules by which to distinguish between members and outsiders, to identify leaders, to establish the aims of the collectivity, to set acceptable limits of behaviour for members, and to specify how collective decisions are to be made accounts for the volatility of collective behaviour.Aug 21, · A modern edition of a sociological and social psychology classic, adding a reflective new Preface by the author--plus an extensive, analytical Foreword by MIT's Gary Marx.
Marx notes, "The book is elegant, original, carefully crafted and forcefully argued. In its totality, it is a fine example of an effort to define a field, identify major types and systematically connect central variables.". Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.
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May 14, · The Theory Of Collective Behavior Essay Words | 5 Pages. and others by engaging in various types of collective action, such as protesting in the streets, that dramatize those grievances and concerns and demand that something be done about them.” (Ruud Kreisi Hanspeter, Saul.A.
Sarah, Snow.A. David, pg 3) The theories of social movements are discussed below.
Collective behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. presented their emergent norm theory of collective behavior, which downplayed the irrationality emphasized in earlier decades by Le Bon and other intellectuals.
According to Turner and Killian, when people start interacting in collective behavior, initially they are not sure how they are.